Publications > Journals > Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology > Instruction for Authors

Instruction for authors
Instruction for Manuscript Preparation

The Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology (JCTH) will consider the following article types for publication, with the following formatting restrictions:

Original Research

Original research manuscripts will describe experimental and/or clinical studies in hepatology, including exploratory and hypothesis-driven studies of basic or applied research. The data described in the article will have been generated exclusively from an original research study, and the results will be supported by appropriate statistical analyses.

Reviews Review manuscripts will describe the most recent advances or challenges in a specific field or specialty of hepatology. The information will be presented as a logical summary of the current knowledge and will provide novel insights into the topic and reasoned recommendations for future research directions. Illustrations, diagrams, algorithms, tables and other visual aids are strongly encouraged.

Letters to the Editor Letters to the Editor will describe timely issues related to a previous publication in the JCTH. These letters will use constructive and professional comments to expand upon the issue, providing novel and reasoned insights into and/or updates on the topic under discussion. All opinions stated in the letter will be supported by the most current topically relevant literature.

Commentaries and Editorials Commentary and Editorial articles will describe reasoned opinions on a topically relevant issue that is currently trending in hepatology. It is intended to motivate readers to critically consider the topic and its potential for impact on the field and/or specialty.

Case Reports Case Reports will describe individual or series of patient cases that have a timely and significant impact on the field or in a specialty of hepatology. These reports will provide novel insights into a particular pathological or physiological issue related to liver disease, supported bywell-described background information for both the case(s) (from documented medical records) and disease (from the literature).

General Formatting Requirements for All Article Types All manuscripts will be submitted as a single Microsoft Word document that is typed in Times New Roman, font size 11, and double-spaced.

Conflict of Interest Statement: All authors are required to disclose any potential conflicts of interest (financial, professional, personal, or otherwise) from within the past two years that are relevant to the manuscript, including but not limited to consultancies, ownership, equity, patent-licensing agreements, research support, major honoraria, employment or board positions involving a company whose product is mentioned in the manuscript. In the case that there is nothing to disclose, this fact should be clearly stated as: “The author(s) has (ve) no conflict of interest(s) related to this publication”.

Data Repository Accession Numbers: Accession numbers will be provided for the repository for all sequences, plasmids, expression microarrays, and amino acid sequence data that is presented, regardless of whether it has already been or will be submitted in the future to GenBank or EMBL.

Abbreviations: In general, the widespread use of non-standard abbreviations is discouraged. For the Abstract and main text of the manuscript, abbreviations must be defined upon first usage of the term for any term used more than 3 times in the document. Abbreviations in the Figures and Tables must be defined in the figure legend and table footnotes, regardless of how many times they appear. Standard abbreviations not requiring definition can be found in the AMA Manual of Style or the Index Medicus.

Author Assurances: The accompanying Author’s Assurances document must accompany all manuscripts submitted to JCTH. This agreement must be read and signed by every author. The Corresponding Author must certify that all listed authors participated significantly in the study, and that they have seen and approved the final manuscript.

Cover Letter: The cover letter will provide the title of the manuscript, the article type (Original Article, Review, Case Report, Editorial, Commentary, or Letter to the Editor), a recommendation for the preferred Associate Editor, and recommendations for three potential referees (including contact information: email address, phone, and fax numbers) who are not members of the authors’ institution or have conflicts of interest with any of the authors. Authors may also list referees, whom they would prefer to be excluded from the review. The final selection of an Associate Editor and referees is at the discretion of the JCTH editorial office.

Title: The title will be written as a brief but complete statement that accurately describes the content of the article. The title must not exceed 120 characters (including spaces). There will be no non-standard abbreviations.

Short Title: The running title will not exceed 45 characters (including spaces).

Authors: All authors will be identified by their first (given) name and family surname (family name). The individual’s degree designation (i.e. PhD, MD, BSci, etc.) will not be listed. Each author’s affiliation(s) (where the work was performed) will be provided, and the information will include the full name of the institution (s) and department(s). The affiliation will be denoted for each author using a numbering system that corresponds to that author’s position in the author list. Current addresses will be indicated separately and denoted by a symbol (but not an asterisk).

Corresponding Author: The contact information for the corresponding author will include the individual’s name, complete mailing address (department, institute, street and number, city, state/province, zip code, and country), e-mail address, telephone number, and fax number. The name of the Corresponding Author in the authors’ list will be denoted by an asterisk (*).In the case of cocorresponding authors (no more than 2 are allowed), the person responsible for addressing reviewers’ comments will be listed first.

Author Contributions: The Authors’ Contributions will be provided in paragraph form following the authors’ names and affiliations and the Corresponding Author(s)’information. The manner in which each author was involved with the study and/or preparation of the manuscript will be listed following the author’s name written out as first and middle initials followed by full last name. The means of contribution that are acceptable for inclusion as an author are as follows: study design, performance of experiments, analysis and interpretation of data, manuscript writing, critical revision, statistical analysis, critical funding, administration, technical or material support.

Authorship Criteria: Authors must meet at least one of the following criteria for authorship credit: · Conception of study objectives and/or design · Collection of data · Analysis of data · Interpretation of findings · Drafting the article · Revising the article for important intellectual content · Acquisition of funding Authorship based solely on position, such as department chairperson or laboratory or general project supervisor, is prohibited. All authors must read the entire final draft of the document and approve its submission to JCTH. All authors take responsibility for the ethical conduct of the research and the integrity of the written content of the article. The corresponding authormust attest to this policy on behalf of all authors by signing the Authors’ Assurances Form. Recognition of non-author contributors Any individual(s) who do(es) not meet the authorship criteria, as well as funding sources, will be recognized in the Acknowledgments section of the manuscript. The specific contribution of each entity or individual is to be detailed, along with the full name and location (for entities)/affiliation (for individuals) of each. Grant support and other financial assistance will be specified with grant numbers (if available) and the author to whom the grant was awarded.

Article-Specific Formatting Requirements Original Research Articles The manuscript, excluding the Abstract but including the References, must not exceed 5000 words and have no more than 50 references.

Abstract The Abstract will be written as a complete but succinct summary of the study, its main objectives, results, key findings, and implications for the field or specialty. The Abstract may not exceed 275 words, will be structured (Original Article), with the following sections: Background and Aims, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. Acronyms and abbreviations must be defined the first time they appear. Abbreviations will only be used if the abbreviated term appears three or more times in the Abstract. Footnotes and references are not permitted.

Abstract headings

Background and Aims: This section will describe the importance of the study and the precise research objective(s) or question(s) addressed by the study.

Methods: This section will briefly describe the information on the basic study design and techniques used for all data presented in the proceeding Results section and to support the scope of the Conclusions stated at the end of the Abstract.

Results: This section will provide the main data obtained by the study, including statistical values (e.g. confidence intervals or p values). The appropriate values and statistical differences will be reported so that readers can determine the absolute as well as the relative impact of the results.

Conclusions: This section will state only conclusions that are directly supported by the data presented in the preceding Results section, and may speculate on the reasoned implications of the findings.

Keywords: Three to four keywords will be selected from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) descriptor terms listed in the National Library of Medicine’s controlled vocabulary database. These terms can be searched using the MeSH browser at: The keywords will be presented in the row-list style and written in lowercase, separated by semicolons, with no period at the end of the list.

Significance Statement (new element)

Authors must submit a short (100-word maximum)  statement about the significance of their original research/review paper written at a level understandable to an undergraduate-educated scientist outside their field of specialty. The main goal of the Significance Statement is to explain the relevance of the work in broad context to a broad readership. The Significance Statement will appear in the paper below Abstract section and is required for all original research/review papers.

Main body of the Manuscript Introduction: The Introduction will not be divided into subsections and will briefly describe the background of the study and the rationale for conducting the research and the manner in which it was performed.

Methods: The Methods will provide all details that would be required for another investigator to repeat the work. Methods that have been published previously and used without significant alteration may be sufficiently presented as a one or two sentence description that is followed by the appropriate reference. When significant changes have been made to a method, however, those changes will be described in detail, and the remaining similar portions may be sufficiently referred to with the appropriate reference. No materials/methods will be presented outside of the Methods section. The steps of an experimental procedure will not be repeated in the Results section or in the Figure Legends. For human trials, the type of study will be indicated from the following list: randomized controlled trial, cross sectional study, cohort study, case series, or survey. In addition, the following study-relevant information will be presented: participating institutions, number of subjects, method of selection, recruitment, enrollment, randomization, withdrawal and completion, and assignment to interventions, method of administration, and duration of the intervention. The authors will provide declarative statements to assure that (a) informed consent in writing was obtained from each patient prior to enrollment and (b) the study protocol had been approved by the appropriate institutional review committee (IRB) with the name of the committee and institution being clearly stated, along with conformance to the ethical guidelines of the 1975 Declaration of Helsinki. No patient identifying information will be shown without express written permission from the patient. For animal studies, it will be clearly stated that approval had been obtained from an institutional animal care committee and that all animals received humane care according to the "Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals" prepared by the National Academy of Sciences and published by the National Institutes of Health (NIH publication 86-23 revised 1985). All experimental methods described in the Methods section must have accompanying data presented in the Results section or additional materials, and vice versa (all data presented must have the experimental procedures described in the Methods section). The complete names and locations (city, state/province and country) must be provided for the manufacturers of drugs, tools, instruments, software, reagents and equipment.

Results: The Results section will state the main outcomes of the study, including absolute values and relative differences, statistical methods used, as well as the confidence intervals or p values. Tables and figures should be cited and interpreted. The Results section will not include any background information or discussion of results from previously published studies. Therefore, in general, no references will be present in the Results text. As a general rule, data reported in the figures and tables will not be repeated in the text of the Results or Discussion sections. Rather, the appropriate accompanying materials should be referenced. Citing “data not shown” is discouraged; however, if unavoidable the term will be presented at the end of the sentence containing the description of the findings and written in parentheses as “…(data not shown)…”

Discussion: The Discussion section will provide thoughtful comments on the novelty or unexpected features of the results and the relevance in relation to previous studies; the latter will be supported by appropriate references. The background information, including study objectives and justifications, presented in the Introduction section will not be repeated in the Discussion, unless they are discussed relative to previous publications. No new data will be presented in the Discussion section. The data presented in the Results section, including figures, tables and supplemental materials, will not be repeated in the Discussion section.

Conclusions: The Conclusions section will briefly summarize conclusions that are directly supported by the evidence and comment on the implications of the findings.

Acknowledgments: This section is to acknowledge any and all personal assistance and providers of special reagents; individuals’ names and affiliations should be provided in full. All grant support and other financial assistance must be stated with grant numbers (if available; written as "No. ###") and the author to whom the grant was awarded (written as abbreviated given name(s) and full last name "to AZ Wang"). If there was no financial assistance involved, authors should state: "No grant support". The names of (in full and with affiliations, if applicable) and funding sources for individuals who provided writing assistance will be given in this section.


References will be cited in the text by using superscripted Arabic numerals in the order of appearance in the text, and using the format shown below. Click here to download the endnote format for JCTH.

Article, list all authors up to six, and use "et al." When the number is greater than six, use the following format:

1. Author AB, Author CD, Author EF, Author GH, Author IJ, Author KL, et al. The factors that initiate and maintain zonal hepatocyte differentiation. J Transl Hepatol 2012; 1:1-10.

Article in press:

1. Asahina Y, Tsuchiya K, Nishimura T, Muraoka M, Suzuki Y, Tamaki N, et al. α-fetoprotein levels after interferon therapy and risk of hepatocarcinogenesis in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2013 Apr 8.


1. Author AB. Hepatocyte Differentiation. Philadelphia: Institute for Scientific Information, 1979.

Article in a book:
1. Author AB, Author CD, Author EF. Imaging of the hepatobiliary system. In: Jones J, ed. Radiology of the gastrointestinal tract. Volume 1. 2nd ed. New York: Springer, 2012:1-40.

Abstract or Supplement:
1. Author AB, Author CD, Author EF, Author GH, Author IJ, Author KL, Author MN, et al. J Clin and Transl Hepatol 2012; 1(Suppl): 1A.

1., accessed June 2013

Personal communications and unpublished data will be indicated as such, within parentheses and without being numbered.

Tables: All tables will be made to provide concise but detailed information without the need to reference any portion of the text in the main body of the manuscript (or elsewhere). The information provided in the table will only be additional information that is not present in the text, to avoid redundancy. The tables will be numbered according to their sequential presentation in the manuscript. All tables must be accompanied by a clear descriptive title that covers all of the data presented in the entire table. The text in tables will be double-spaced, and written as Microsoft Word paragraphs (not embedded Excel/.xls or image files). All tables should read vertically, when possible, and have headings for each column prepared without the use of tabs. The tables will be located in the manuscript, following the References section and not as a separate file.

Figures Images: Only Images that are essential to justify the conclusions stated in the manuscript should be included. The image files will be embedded in the manuscript document at after the Tables. Arabic numbers or Roman letters will be placed in the upper left corner of the image to identify the individual panels corresponding to the textual description in the accompanying Figure Legend. Images may be clinical, pathologic (gross or microscopic), endoscopic, or radiographic. All images must be of high quality, with a resolution of 300 dots per inch (dpi)or greater, with all pictured evidence clearly and completely visible. The preferred formats for figure files are jpeg (.jpg) and tiff (.tif). The images will be labeled consecutively, such as "Figure 1.jpg," "Figure 2.jpg," etc., with the appropriate file extensions appended (.tif, .jpg).

Photographs: All patient identifiers must be removed from photos and radiographic studies, unless specific written permission has been obtained from the patient.

Line Art and Graphs: All graphs or line art files are required to be at a resolution of at least 500 dpi.

Gel Electrophoresis Labeling: The protein molecular weight or DNA marker sizes must be indicated on all appropriate figure panels.

Figure Files: All color figures will be submitted in the CMYK color mode. All black and white figures will be submitted in the Gray scale mode. While each figure may contain several labeled panels, each panel must be presented as a separate electronic file.

Figure Legends: All figures must be accompanied by a figure legend which will begin with a single unifying title that is generally applicable to all panels and data presented in the figure. The title will not appear in the figure itself. The Figure Legend must describe the figure as a stand-alone document; as such, the text must include definitions of any accompanying abbreviated words (in either the Legend text or the Figure itself), even if they have been previously defined in the main body of the manuscript or the Abstract. The Figure Legend will not repeat either the data values presented in the figure (including statistical values) or the detailed methods used to generate the data that is already appropriately described in the Methods’ text section of the manuscript. The Figure Legend will not include any results or conclusions. For inclusion of any copyrighted material, documentation that permission has been obtained for reproduction must be provided, and the source acknowledged in the legend. The Figure Legends will be located in the manuscript, following the figures section and not as a separate file. All symbols appearing in the Figure will be defined in the Figure Legend (such as asterisks (*) and arrows. In addition, any color distinctions will be defined in the Figure Legend, unless a key has been added as an inset to the figure itself and provides the definitions. Designations of statistical significant values will be made by asterisks, with increasing amounts of asterisks representing increasing strength of significance; for example, * may indicate p< 0.05, * may indicate p< 0.01, and *** may indicate p< 0.001.

Supplemental documents: Supplemental documents, including but not limited to tables, figures and data, should be submitted together with the manuscript. Please choose “supplemental documents” in the “document uploading step”. All documents submitted as supplemental documents will only be published on-line, but not in the print version.

Review Articles The manuscript, excluding the Tables, Figure Legends and the References, must not exceed 6000 words. No more than 120 references are allowed; references should be limited to those seminal to the field. The manuscript components are the same as for the Original Research Articles (listed above) but the Abstract will be written in an unstructured paragraph form. A Methods section is not necessary in the main body of the manuscript, unless the focus of the article is on methodology.

Letters to the Editor The manuscript may not exceed 500 words (including the References section) and should be addressed to the Editor. No accompanying abstract is required. No more than 2 figures are allowed. No more than 10 references are allowed.

Editorials These invited manuscripts may not exceed 1,500 words (including the References section).No accompanying abstract is required. Figures are discouraged, but if necessary only 1 figure may be allowed. No more than 5 references are allowed.

SUBMISSION The JCTH uses an electronic submission process. All manuscripts, including the tables and figures, the completed Author’s Checklist and Cover Letter should be submitted electronically through:

Special Instructions for Authors

Tricks of the Trade Section

The manuscript, excluding the Abstract but including the References, must not exceed 4000 words and have no more than 40 references.

Cover letter: State in a cover letter that the manuscript is being submitted for inclusion in the “Tricks of the Trade” section, and briefly describe the novelty and/or improvement in technique. Follow the usual JCTH instructions for the rest of the title page.

Title page: On the title page, in the upper left hand corner type: “Methodology”. Follow the usual JCTH instructions for the rest of the title page.

Short Title, Authors, Corresponding Author, Author Contributions, Authorship Criteria, Abstract: Follow the usual JCTH instructions.

Introduction of background and aims: This section will describe the current state of the methodology, difficulties, and deficiencies. The aim of the study states how the research was designed to address the deficiencies.

Materials and Methods: This section will describe in detail well controlled studies demonstrating optimization, reproducibility including step-by-step instructions for experiments that demonstrate optimization, reproducibility including step-by-step instructions including detailed technical advice, and pitfalls. Vendors, locations, instrument model numbers, and every detail required to reproduce the results must be included. Links arranged by the Journal to audio-visual demonstrations are encouraged.

Results: This section must provide detailed data supporting the issues of optimization, and reproducibility including statistical analysis.

Conclusions: This section will state only conclusions that are directly supported by the data presented in the preceding Results section, and may speculate on the reasoned implications of the findings.

Discussion: This section should refer to previous methods and describe the novelty, importance, and significance of the developments in the current research relative to past methodology.

Acknowledgments and references: Follow the usual JCTH instructions.

Tales and figures: Follow the usual JCTH instructions.

Article processing charge (APC)

JCTH adopts the open access publishing model. JCTH is mostly financially supported by the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, with limited revenue of APC from authors or their institutions/support funds. The APC for JCTH is $800. 

For authors from low-income countries ( or lower-middle-income countries ( as classified by the World Bank, a 50% discount of the article processing fee can be granted. Please send the request form to

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