• Newly published articles
  • Highlights
    Review Article Open Access
    Microbial Biomarkers for Colorectal Cancer Identified with Random Forest Model
    Weili Sun, Lili Wang, Qiuyue Zhang, Quanjiang Dong
    Exploratory Research and Hypothesis in Medicine, Published online January 17, 2020. doi:10.14218/ERHM.2019.00026
    Abstract
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers and a leading cause of cancer-related death. Gut microbiota are part of a complex microbe-based ecosystem of the human body, [...] Read more.
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers and a leading cause of cancer-related death. Gut microbiota are part of a complex microbe-based ecosystem of the human body, and changes in the microbiota can lead to a variety of diseases. All currently used CRC detection methods, including endoscopy, guaiac-based fecal occult blood test and fecal immunochemical test, have many limitations. Therefore, establishing novel screening methods which are accurate, inexpensive and non-invasive is indicated. Random forest models, as a superiority machine learning model, are increasingly used in research to select biomarkers. In this review, we summarized progressions of the diagnoses of CRC based on the random forest model of gut microbiota. We concluded that some cancer-associated bacteria in gut microbiota could be used as biomarkers for detecting early CRC. We also aimed to discuss how to select possible markers of colorectal diseases based on gut microbiota using the random forest model. Full article
    Original Article Open Access
    Echocardiography Effectiveness in Improving Diagnosis of Rheumatic Heart Disease in North Darfur: A Hospital-based Study
    Mohammed Elmujtba Adam Essa Adam, Sherihan Mohammed Elkundi Osman, Daralsalam Ishag Ateem Abdalrasoul, Ibrahim Adam Osman Yagoup, Mustafa Mohamed Ali Hussein, Mutwaly Defealla Yousif Haron, Ziryab Imad Taha Mahmoud, Abdelkareem A. Ahmed
    Exploratory Research and Hypothesis in Medicine, Published online January 10, 2020. doi:10.14218/ERHM.2019.00020
    Abstract
    Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is an inflammatory disease caused by autoimmune responses to bacterial infection. Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) damages one or more heart valves through [...] Read more.
    Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is an inflammatory disease caused by autoimmune responses to bacterial infection. Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) damages one or more heart valves through recurrent episodes of ARF. We aimed to determine the changes in sensitivity, specificity and predictive values in RHD Jones diagnostic guidelines following the inclusion of echocardiograph as an additional diagnostic tool for RHD. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study done in the echocardiography center of Al-Fashir teaching hospital. We included a total of 1,103 patients who presented at our hospital and had a diagnosis of RHD, ischemic heart disease or congestive heart disease during 2011–2017. Among the RHD patients, screening with echocardiography was associated with increases of the sensitivity value, positive predictive value and specificity value by 18.1%, 8.1% and 1%, as compared to their initial diagnoses by Jones criteria alone, which were primarily based on clinical presentations. Mitral stenosis was the most common RHD abnormality, followed by aortic and tricuspid valve regurgitation. North Darfur state was found to have the lowest prevalence of RHD in all geographical parts of Sudan that have been studied. The female to male ratio was 3:1. Our data highlight the important role of echocardiography in diagnosing RHD complications through improved diagnostic sensitivity, positive predictive value and specificity. Full article
    Review Article Open Access
    The Effect of Honey as a Treatment for Oral Ulcerative Lesions: A Systematic Review
    Maddison Hunter, Jane Kellett, Nathan M. D’Cunha, Kellie Toohey, Andrew McKune, Nenad Naumovski
    Exploratory Research and Hypothesis in Medicine, Published online January 8, 2020. doi:10.14218/ERHM.2019.00029
    Abstract
    A healthy oral environment features a rapid turnover rate of epithelium cells capable of regeneration and repair, with the oral epithelium contributing as a physical barrier and immune [...] Read more.
    A healthy oral environment features a rapid turnover rate of epithelium cells capable of regeneration and repair, with the oral epithelium contributing as a physical barrier and immune defense. However, the oral cavity can be subjected to unique damage, such as ulcerations. Honey is reported as a therapeutic agent for wound healing, due to its antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. A systematic review was performed following the PRISMA 2015 Guidelines, to assess the efficacy and safety of the therapeutic use of honey in the oral cavity. Four electronic databases were searched (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Web of Science) for randomized controlled trials examining the effect of honey on oral cavity conditions. In total, 2,832 records were identified, and after applying exclusion criteria, 13 studies were included. Honey was applied topically throughout, for chemotherapy or radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis (n = 11), dental wounds (n = 1), and recurrent aphthous stomatitis (n = 1), all of which are ulcerations with different pathologies. In the majority of studies (12/13), honey reduced the severity and/or duration of the condition compared with control groups (all p<0.05). However, a group treated with Manuka honey (n = 1) experienced adverse effects and considerable participant attrition. Honey is an effective treatment for a range of oral ulcerative conditions. Future research should focus on compositional analysis of honeys to determine those with optimal beneficial properties, and whether Manuka honey is safe to use in the oral cavity. Full article

Journals

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    Review Article Open Access
    Current and Future Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: An Updated Comprehensive Review
    Saleh Daher, Muhammad Massarwa, Ariel A. Benson, Tawfik Khoury
    Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology, Published online December 17, 2017. doi:10.14218/JCTH.2017.00031
    Abstract
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the leading causes of cancer-related mortality. The principal treatment is surgical resection or liver transplantation, depending on whether [...] Read more.
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the leading causes of cancer-related mortality. The principal treatment is surgical resection or liver transplantation, depending on whether the patient is a suitable transplant candidate. However, in most patients with HCC the diagnosis is often late, thereby excluding the patients from definitive surgical resection. Medical treatment includes sorafenib, which is the most commonly used systemic therapy; although, it has been shown to only minimally impact patient survival by several months. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are generally ineffective. Due to the poor prognosis of patients with HCC, newer treatments are needed with several being in development, either in pre-clinical or clinical studies. In this review article, we provide an update on the current and future medical and surgical management of HCC. Full article
    Review Article Open Access
    Current Management of Alcoholic Hepatitis and Future Therapies
    Behnam Saberi, Alia S. Dadabhai, Yoon-Young Jang, Ahmet Gurakar, Esteban Mezey
    Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology, Published online June 28, 2016. doi:10.14218/JCTH.2016.00006
    Abstract
    Alcohol is one of the most common etiologies of liver disease, and alcoholic liver disease overall is the second most common indication for liver transplantation in the United States. [...] Read more.
    Alcohol is one of the most common etiologies of liver disease, and alcoholic liver disease overall is the second most common indication for liver transplantation in the United States. It encompasses a spectrum of disease, including fatty liver disease, alcoholic hepatitis (AH), and alcoholic cirrhosis. AH can range from mild to severe disease, with severe disease being defined as: Discriminant Function (DF) ≥ 32, or Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) ≥ 21, or presence of hepatic encephalopathy. Management of the mild disease consists mainly of abstinence and supportive care. Severe AH is associated with significant mortality. Currently, there is no ideal medical treatment for this condition. Besides alcohol cessation, corticosteroids have been used with conflicting results and are associated with an inherent risk of infection. Overall steroids have shown short term benefit when compared to placebo, but they have no obvious long term benefits. Pentoxifylline does not improve survival in patients with severe AH and is no longer recommended based on the results of the STOPAH (Steroid Or Pentoxifylline for Alcoholic Hepatitis) trial. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents are associated with increased risk of life threatening infections and death. Currently, early stage trials are underway, mainly targeting novel pathways based on disease pathogenesis, including modulation of innate immune system, inhibition of gut-liver axis and cell death pathways, and activation of transcription factor farnesyl X receptor (FXR). Future treatment may lie in human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, which is currently under investigation for the study of pathogenesis, drug discovery, and stem cell transplantation. Liver transplantation has been reported with good results in highly selected patients but is controversial due to limited organ supply. Full article
    Review Article Open Access
    Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity: a Comprehensive Update
    Eric Yoon, Arooj Babar, Moaz Choudhary, Matthew Kutner, Nikolaos Pyrsopoulos
    Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology, Published online June 15, 2016. doi:10.14218/JCTH.2015.00052
    Abstract
    Hepatic injury and subsequent hepatic failure due to both intentional and non-intentional overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) has affected patients for decades, and involves the cornerstone [...] Read more.
    Hepatic injury and subsequent hepatic failure due to both intentional and non-intentional overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) has affected patients for decades, and involves the cornerstone metabolic pathways which take place in the microsomes within hepatocytes. APAP hepatotoxicity remains a global issue; in the United States, in particular, it accounts for more than 50% of overdose-related acute liver failure and approximately 20% of the liver transplant cases. The pathophysiology, disease course and management of acute liver failure secondary to APAP toxicity remain to be precisely elucidated, and adverse patient outcomes with increased morbidity and mortality continue to occur. Although APAP hepatotoxicity follows a predictable timeline of hepatic failure, its clinical presentation might vary. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) therapy is considered as the mainstay therapy, but liver transplantation might represent a life-saving procedure for selected patients. Future research focus in this field may benefit from shifting towards obtaining antidotal knowledge at the molecular level, with focus on the underlying molecular signaling pathways. Full article
Special Features

Author Interview: Ashwani Singal 

Author of "Diabetes Mellitus Predicts Occurrence of Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Cancer in Alcoholic Liver and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases"

J Clin Transl Hepatol. 2015 Mar; 3(1): 9–16. Published online 2015 Mar 15. doi: 10.14218/JCTH.2015.00001.

Author Interview: Lucija Virovic Jukic

Author of "Hepatitis C Virus, Insulin Resistance, and Steatosis"

J Clin Transl Hepatol. 2016 Mar; 4(1): 66–75. Published online 2015 Mar 15. doi: 10.14218/JCTH.2015.00051.

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