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COVID-19
The novel coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2 has caused the outbreak of COVID-19 that is resulting in a rapidly evolving situation worldwide. This collection includes articles related to COVID-19 that have been published by XHP journals. We support the rapid dissemination of coronavirus-related research by providing a fast peer-review and production process (Submit A Manuscript), and free access to all published articles. Moreover, Exploratory Research and Hypothesis in Medicine (ERHM) and Journal of Exploratory Research in Pharmacology (JERP) do NOT charge any fees for COVID-19 related articles.
Review Article Open Access
Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) and the Liver
Anshuman Elhence, Manas Vaishnav, Sagnik Biswas, Ashish Chauhan, Abhinav Anand, Shalimar
Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology, Published online March 22, 2021. doi:10.14218/JCTH.2021.00006
Highlights
  • Liver injury in COVID-19 is often multifactorial.
  • In most cases with normal underlying liver, the insult is innocuous.
  • In patients with underlying liver disease- acute decompensation and especially acute-on-chronic liver failure lead to high mortality.
  • Available data suggests liver transplant recipients and those with autoimmune liver disease do not have high mortality despite being immunocompromised.
Review Article Open Access
The Influence of COVID-19 on the Psychological Well-being of Different Populations in China
Haiyan Chen, Xin Xiao, Weihong Wang, Zhaowei Tong, Longqi Zhang, Jianfeng Zhong, Xiaofeng Li, Xianshan Zhang, Yong Tong, Bin Shen, Qingqiu Zeng, Xiaofang Cheng
Exploratory Research and Hypothesis in Medicine, Published online March 3, 2021. doi:10.14218/ERHM.2020.00067
Highlights
  • The enormous stress, extreme fear and unavoidable anxiety caused by the COVID-19 virus in special groups such as students, recent college graduates, medical staff, older persons, pregnant women, children, and general public may also be profound.
  • Panic and anxiety may be included in one’s emotional responses, both fear and distorted concepts of risk often drive negative social actions, especially special groups such as students, recent college graduates, medical staff, older persons, pregnant women, children, general public, etc.
  • Long-term loneliness is deemed a condition that is near completely harmful,without intervention, chronic loneliness can grow. The mechanism of loneliness including the loneliness model, gene effects, sleep, health behaviors and immune functioning.
  • A series of psychological intervention measures should be adopted by relevant departments to pay attention to the psychological state of the above special groups.
Original Article Open Access
COVID-19 in Liver Transplant Recipients
Ravina Kullar, Ankur Prakash Patel, Sammy Saab
Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology, Published online February 22, 2021. doi:10.14218/JCTH.2020.00098
Highlights
  • ·Eight studies evaluated COVID-19 infection in liver transplant patients (n=494).
  • ·Calcineurin inhibitors were the most common immunosuppressant medications.
  • ·Fever and cough, at 70% and 62% respectively, were the most common symptoms.
  • ·80% of the patients were admitted to a hospital and 17% ICU care.
  • ·Overall mortality in this cohort was 17%.
Letter to the Editor Open Access
Impact of Liver Injury in COVID-19 Patients: Single-center Retrospective Cohort Analysis
Jiten Desai, Upenkumar Patel, Shiva Arjun, Kristen Farraj, Kevin Yeroushalmi, Sandra Gomez Paz, Jaehyuck Im, Andres Castillo, Rajmohan Rammohan, Paul Mustacchia
Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology, Published online October 23, 2020. doi:10.14218/JCTH.2020.00075
Highlights
Review Article Open Access
Progress on Gastrointestinal Symptoms, Treatment and Protection in COVID-19 Patients
Tian Huang, Long-Quan Li, Yong-Qing Wang, Zheng-Ping Wang, Yuan Liang, Tao-Bi Huang, Hui-Yun Zhang, Wei-Ming Sun, Yu-Ping Wang
Exploratory Research and Hypothesis in Medicine, Published online October 12, 2020. doi:10.14218/ERHM.2020.00049
Highlights
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms might be the single manifestation of COVID-19 patients, and physicians should pay enough attention to these patients.
  • We should not ignore the “fecal-oral” and “fecal-aerosol-respiratory” transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2.
  • ACE2 is the receptor used by SARS-CoV to enter host cells.
  • Further clinical studies are needed to clarify the efficacy and safety of ACEI/ARB in the treatment of COVID-19.
Case Report Open Access
COVID-19 in Liver Transplant Recipients - A Series with Successful Recovery
Ashok Choudhury, Golamari Srinivasa Reddy, Shantan Venishetty, Viniyendra Pamecha, Saggere Muralikrishna Shasthry, Arvind Tomar, Lalita Gauri Mitra, Venkata Siva Tez Prasad, Rajendra Prasad Mathur, Debajyoti Bhattacharya, Shiv Kumar Sarin
Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology, Published online October 10, 2020. doi:10.14218/JCTH.2020.00061
Highlights
  • Liver Transplant recepients with COVID-19 had a favouravle outcome with currently existing therapy.
  • The immunosuppression minimization or withdrawal was needed depending upon severity, with consideration of tocilizumab along with convalescent plasma to address the cytokine storm, and remdesivir for severe disease.
  • Therapeutically repurposed drugs with minimal adverse effects, like teicoplanin and doxycycline, can be considered in resource-poor settings.
  • Watchful monitoring of asymptomatic recipients with home isolation is advised.
  • Prophylactic Anticoagulation with low, oleculsr weigh heparin is needed in all hospitalised cases.
Original Article Open Access
Liver Dysfunction and Its Association with the Risk of Death in COVID-19 Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study
Lin Fu, Jun Fei, Shen Xu, Hui-Xian Xiang, Ying Xiang, Biao Hu, Meng-Die Li, Fang-Fang Liu, Ying Li, Xiu-Yong Li, Hui Zhao, De-Xiang Xu
Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology, Published online August 20, 2020. doi:10.14218/JCTH.2020.00043
Highlights
  • Liver dysfunction is more common in the critically ill COVID-19 patients
  • Male elderly COVID-19 patients with diabetes and lymphopenia are more susceptible to liver dysfunction
  • Liver dysfunction at early disease stage elevates the risk of death of COVID-19 patients
  • COVID-19-associated liver dysfunction does not recover completely by 14 days after discharge
Editorial Open Access
Multi-Drug Therapy Schedules for SARS-COV-2: Smart Repurposing of Old Drugs
Ahmed B. Bayoumy, Azhar R. Ansari, Ronney A. De Abreu, Godefridus J. Peters, Chris J.J. Mulder
Journal of Exploratory Research in Pharmacology , Published online August 18, 2020. doi:10.14218/JERP.2020.00022
Highlights
  • Thioguanine has been identified as an inhibitor of the papain-like protease, an important enzyme in the viral replication of SARS-COV-2. Thioguanine is a potential effective treatment for SARS-COV-2.
  • Thioguanine should be initiated on 1 mg/kg/day at hospitalization for the first three days, then 0.6 mg/kg/day for the next three days and lowered to 0.3 mg/kg/day for remaining treatment till end of discharge.
  • Multi-drug regimen strategies might be effective for SARS-COV-2. Thioguanine can be combined with methotrexate, remdesivir and dexamethasone.
Review Article Open Access
Does COVID-19 Warn Us to Revisit Virus-Induced Diabetes?
Muthuswamy Balasubramanyam
Exploratory Research and Hypothesis in Medicine, Published online July 8, 2020. doi:10.14218/ERHM.2020.00046
Highlights
  • Diabetes is frequently reported as a co-morbidity in COVID-19 patients.
  • Diabetes is a strong risk factor for developing severe and fatal forms of COVID-19.
  • It seems there exist a bidirectional relationship between COVID-19 and Diabetes.
  • Could COVOD-19 trigger new-onset diabetes? – is a new school of thought.
  • COVID-19 follow-up studies should address the etiology of virus-induced diabetes.
Original Article Open Access
Associations of Stay-at-Home Order and Face-Masking Recommendation with Trends in Daily New Cases and Deaths of Laboratory-Confirmed COVID-19 in the United States
Jie Xu, Sabiha Hussain, Guanzhu Lu, Kai Zheng, Shi Wei, Wei Bao, Lanjing Zhang
Exploratory Research and Hypothesis in Medicine, Published online July 8, 2020. doi:10.14218/ERHM.2020.00045
Highlights
  • Up to 290,829,980 (88.6% of U.S. population) residents were under SAHO since Apr. 7.
  • 40 states and DC implanted a stay-at-home order by April 7, but 18 lifted it later.
  • States’ neighboring relationship with New York was linked to COVID-19 epidemics.
  • Stay-at-home order linked to ~9% reduction in daily growth rate of COVID-19 case.
  • Face-masking policy linked to ~9% reduction in daily growth rate of COVID-19 case.
Review Article Open Access
Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 Replication by Acidizing and RNA Lyase-Modified Carbon Nanotubes Combined with Photodynamic Thermal Effect
Jianshe Yang
Journal of Exploratory Research in Pharmacology , Published online April 27, 2020. doi:10.14218/JERP.2020.00005
Highlights
  • We must realize and face the difficulty that SARS-CoV-2 is a very kind of obstinate complex coronavirus beyond our recognition ever before.
  • By taking advantage of the physi-chemical properties of coronavirus, though simple, but possibly an effective method against coronavirus.
  • Acidization, photothermal conversion and RNA lyase modification togetherly promote the anti-virus therapy.
Original Article Open Access
Trends and Prediction in Daily New Cases and Deaths of COVID-19 in the United States: An Internet Search-Interest Based Model
Xiaoling Yuan, Jie Xu, Sabiha Hussain, He Wang, Nan Gao, Lanjing Zhang
Exploratory Research and Hypothesis in Medicine, Published online April 18, 2020. doi:10.14218/ERHM.2020.00023
Highlights
  • 636,282 new cases and 28,325 deaths of COVID-19 in the US during 3/1-4/15/2020
  • Crude mortality of COVID-19 was 4.45% in US during 3/1-4/15/2020
  • COVID-19 daily incidence peaked at 35,098 cases in US on 4/10 as of 4/15/2020
  • COVID-19 daily deaths peaked at 2,494 in US on 4/15 as of 4/15/2020
  • Search interest in COVID& others linked to COVID-19 daily incidence& deaths in US
Editorial Open Access
What Has the COVID-19 Pandemic Taught Us so Far? Addressing the Problem from a Hepatologist’s Perspective
Nahum Méndez-Sánchez, Alejandro Valencia-Rodríguez, Xingshun Qi, Eric M. Yoshida, Manuel Romero-Gómez, Jacob George, Mohammed Eslam, Ludovico Abenavoli, Weifen Xie, Rolf Teschke, Andres F. Carrion, Andrew P. Keaveny
Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology, Published online April 11, 2020. doi:10.14218/JCTH.2020.00024
Highlights
  • Nowadays, COVID-19 is the health issue most important in the world.
  • SARS-CoV-2 has seen to affect liver by direct and indirect mechanisms.
  • The role of SARS-CoV-2 in chronic liver diseases is an important topic to study.
  • We suggest a list of precautions to follow for all patients with CLDs.
Review Article Open Access
Characteristics and Mechanism of Liver Injury in 2019 Coronavirus Disease
Jie Li, Jian-Gao Fan
Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology, Published online March 30, 2020. doi:10.14218/JCTH.2020.00019
Highlights
  • Abnormal aminotransferase levels are common in severe cases of COVID-19.
  • Acute liver failure and intrahepatic cholestasis are seldomly observed.
  • The mechanisms of liver injury include stress, systemic inflammation, drug toxicity, and existing liver disease.
  • There is insufficient evidence for SARS-CoV-2–related liver injury in COVID-19.
Review Article Open Access
COVID-19 and Liver Dysfunction: Current Insights and Emergent Therapeutic Strategies
Gong Feng, Kenneth I. Zheng, Qin-Qin Yan, Rafael S. Rios, Giovanni Targher, Christopher D. Byrne, Sven Van Poucke, Wen-Yue Liu, Ming-Hua Zheng
Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology, Published online March 30, 2020. doi:10.14218/JCTH.2020.00018
Highlights
  • COVID-19 patients may have varying degrees of liver damage/dysfunction.
  • SARS-CoV-2 enters alveolar epithelial cells through the ACE2 receptor.
  • Bile duct epithelial cells express ACE2 receptor at a level 20 times greater than hepatocytes.
  • SARS-CoV-2 may cause bile duct epithelial cell damage.
  • Current evidence also suggests liver damage occurs due to hepatotoxic drug use.
Opinion Open Access
Characteristics of COVID-19 During the Onset Stage and Considerations for Disease Control
Lili Wang
Exploratory Research and Hypothesis in Medicine, Published online March 16, 2020. doi:10.14218/ERHM.2020.00005
Highlights
  • The author outlines the characteristics of COVID-19.
  • The main methods for the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 are described.
  • The author discusses experiences gained and potential methods for curing COVID-19 under research and trial.
Editorial Open Access
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 Epidemic Situation in China
Jin Wang, Zhihui Li, Jiahai Lu
Exploratory Research and Hypothesis in Medicine, Published online March 16, 2020. doi:10.14218/ERHM.2020.00009
Highlights
  • The ongoing COVID-19 outbreak is becoming a global epidemic.
  • Strict control of nosocomial infection is significant in fighting COVID-19.
  • Active surveillance of zoonotic diseases is helpful for spotting new pandemic viruses.
Opinion Open Access
Blind Spots in Fighting the Outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019
Lanjing Zhang
Exploratory Research and Hypothesis in Medicine, Published online March 13, 2020. doi:10.14218/ERHM.2020.00012
Highlights
Many efforts have been made to prevent, contain, and treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, many blind spots have not yet received the necessary attention. The author discusses eight blind spots that may interest related parties. If these issues remain outstanding, they will likely lead to various forms of severe harm to the public, healthcare providers, and national and global economies.
Editorial Open Access
The Ongoing Outbreak and Challenges of Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) in China
Bohao Chen
Exploratory Research and Hypothesis in Medicine, Published online March 2, 2020. doi:10.14218/ERHM.2020.00008
Highlights
  • COVID-19 is a highly contagious disease and has become a serious public health threat.
  • COVID-19 is caused by a zoonotic virus with a possible origin in bats.
  • The S protein has sufficient affinity for ACE2 receptor to infect human cells.
  • The S protein is a major target for vaccine development and anti-viral therapy.