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Corrections, Retractions and Expressions of Concern

Errors in reported research must be corrected as soon as possible, in accordance with the requirements of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

  • Corrections should be made immediately in the electronic version or printed page of the journal. The places that need to be corrected should be clearly indicated, with the correction date. The corrections should be included in the Table of Contents of either an electronic version or a print version of the journal.
  • The corrected version, and the version with errors, should be available for future access upon request from the authors.
  • The prior electronic version should contain a note that clearly indicates the existence of an updated version.
  • If the error is major enough to jeopardize the fundamental results or conclusions of the research, retraction instead of correction should be demanded.
Retractions and Expressions of Concern
When scientific misconduct is alleged, or any concerns are raised about the conduct or integrity of published studies, appropriate procedures will be initiated as detailed by such committees such as the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). An expression of concern may be published pending the outcomes of these procedures. If any major flaw or academic misconduct is confirmed, the publisher reserves the right to retract the paper immediately. Examples of misconduct include, but are not limited to, data falsification, fabrication, duplication, or plagiarism.

An expression of concern and retraction will be posted, in an electronic or printed version of the Table of Contents, to ensure proper indexing. The title of the original article will be included in the heading. The retracted paper also will be clearly labeled and linked with the retraction letter from both directions.