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Ethics in Scientific Process
Ethics in Scientific Process Description

Xia & He demands that all research described in its publications be conducted and reported in accordance with the guidance from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and practices according to the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly work in Medical Journals from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Authors are expected to carry out their research-related activities in accordance with the tenets of honesty, transparency, objectivity, and accountability. Editors-in-chief, Associates Editors, editorial members, reviewers and editorial staff are requested to pay attention to prevent and eliminate author misconduct. Xia & He Publishing reserves the right to reject any manuscript that editors believe does not uphold high ethical standards, even if authors have obtained ethical approval or if ethical approval is not required.

Ethics in reporting study procedures and findings 
All methods used in a study should be adequately described, so that readers may replicate the experiments as they were performed by the authors. The practice of withholding a key step (including but not limited to a reagent, procedure, tool, or technique) or any other piece of information related to the study for proprietary or personal reasons is absolutely unacceptable. 

Reporting of results is expected to be complete and accurate. All statistical results of an experiment and/or study project should be presented, including data that does not meet the threshold for statistical significance. The authors must not data picking, which is the practice of presenting incomplete evidence from a series of experiments. The practice of selecting data to exclude negative findings is also prohibited and constitutes scientific misconduct.

All experimental controls should be reported. In addition, the weaknesses of the study design, which may have biased the results, should be reported.

Authors must ensure that all research records, including hand/typewritten documentation, films, and electronic files, are made available upon request at any time during the review process and in perpetuity after the publication of the article describing the study. Patient-related research records should meet the standard regulations of patient privacy and confidentiality. The refusal, disregard, or inability to provide research records that have been requested is considered evidence of scientific misconduct and should prompt an investigation into the need for an article’s dismissal from review or retraction from the journal; the decision to pursue additional actions to address the misconduct should be made at the discretion of the Editors-in-Chief.

Image manipulation 
All images accompanying a publication should be generated in accordance with general ethical standards to ensure integrity of the data presented. Image manipulation or any other form of adjustment that modifies the data is prohibited. 

Animal Subjects
Ethical conduct is expected for all procedures related to animal handling, including husbandry, care, and experimentation. For animal studies, it will be clearly stated in the Methods that approval was obtained from an institutional animal care committee and that all animals received humane care in accordance with the "Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Eighth Edition)" prepared by the National Academy of Sciences and published by the National Institutes of Health (NIH publication 86-23 revised 1985). 
An example ethics statement:
This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. The protocol was approved by the Committee on the Ethics of Animal Experiments of the University of **** (Protocol Number: **-****). All surgery was performed under sodium pentobarbital anesthesia, and all efforts were made to minimize suffering.

Human subjects and informed consent 
For a research study using human subjects, the type of study should be indicated from the following list: randomized controlled trial, cross-sectional study, cohort study, case series, or survey. In addition, the following should be stated: participating institutions; number of subjects; methods of subject selection, recruitment, enrollment, and randomization; and subject withdrawal and completion. Concerning interventions, the criteria for assignment, methods of administration, and duration should be described. 

The authors should ensure that the planning, performance, and reporting of human research are in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration as revised in 2013. All authors should seek approval to conduct research from an independent local, regional, or national review body (e.g., ethics committee, or institutional review board). If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach and demonstrate that the local, regional, or national review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. 

The authors should provide declarative statements that: (a) written informed consent was obtained from each patient prior to enrollment; and (b) the study protocol was approved by the appropriate institutional review committee (IRB), with the name of the committee and institution clearly stated; and (c) the study conformed to the ethical guidelines of the Helsinki Declaration. Information that may identify the human subject should be omitted or anonymized, unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. The author’s statement that informed consent was obtained and archived is required, without exception. Xia & He journals reserve the right to ask the author to provide signed informed consent, if necessary. 

An example ethics statement:
This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of [name of guidelines], [name of committee]. The protocol was approved by the [name of committee]. All subjects gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.

Clinical trial registry 
For all randomized controlled trials submitted for publication, the Clinical Trials Registry identifier number and platform (such as the ClinicalTrials.gov, or other Primary Registries at here) should be provided in the Methods section. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) do not require registration. 

Proper credit for all individuals or organizations that conduct or fund the experimental procedures 
Authors are expected to give proper credit to all individuals and organizations involved in the performance of the research described in an article published by Xia & He Publishing. Individuals who do not meet the Authorship Criteria but who aided in the research, such as patients and hospital staff, should be appropriately acknowledged in the Acknowledgments section of the manuscript. Organizations that were contracted to perform work related to the research or that acted in a non-paid collaborative manner should be appropriately acknowledged in the manuscript. All funding agencies that provided support for the research or for any of the individuals involved in the research must be appropriately acknowledged in the manuscript.