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Information for authors
I. Authorship Criteria

Xia & He have adopted the guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors for the definition of authorship applied to submissions. Please click here for detailed instructions regarding authorship.

II. Ethical Conduct in the Scientific Process

Xia & He demands that all research described in its publications be conducted and reported in accordance with the guidance from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and practices according to the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly work in Medical Journals from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Authors are expected to carry out their research-related activities in accordance with the tenets of honesty, transparency, objectivity, and accountability. Editors-in-chief, Associates Editors, editorial members, reviewers and editorial staff are requested to pay attention to prevent and eliminate author misconduct.

Ethics in reporting study procedures and findings

All methods used in a study should be adequately described, so that readers may replicate the experiments as they were performed by the authors. The practice of withholding a key step (including but not limited to a reagent, procedure, tool, or technique) or any other piece of information related to the study for proprietary or personal reasons is absolutely unacceptable.

Reporting of results is expected to be complete and accurate. All statistical results of an experiment and/or study project should be presented, including data that does not meet the threshold for statistical significance. The authors must not data picking, which is the practice of presenting incomplete evidence from a series of experiments. The practice of selecting data to exclude negative findings is also prohibited and constitutes scientific misconduct.

All experimental controls should be reported. In addition, the weaknesses of the study design, which may have biased the results, should be reported.

Authors must ensure that all research records, including hand/typewritten documentation, films, and electronic files, are made available upon request at any time during the review process and in perpetuity after the publication of the article describing the study. Patient-related research records should meet the standard regulations of patient privacy and confidentiality. The refusal, disregard, or inability to provide research records that have been requested is considered evidence of scientific misconduct and should prompt an investigation into the need for an article’s dismissal from review or retraction from the JCTH publication; the decision to pursue additional actions to address the misconduct should be made at the discretion of the Editors-in-Chief.

Image manipulation

All images accompanying a JCTH publication should be generated in accordance with general ethical standards to ensure integrity of the data presented. Image manipulation or any other form of adjustment that modifies the data is prohibited.

Human subjects

For human trials, the type of study should be indicated from the following list: randomized controlled trial, cross-sectional study, cohort study, case series, or survey. In addition, the following study-relevant information should be presented: participating institutions, number of subjects, method of selection, recruitment, enrollment, randomization, withdrawal and completion, and assignment to interventions, method of administration, and duration of the intervention. The authors will provide declarative statements that (a) informed consent in writing was obtained from each patient prior to enrollment; (b) the study protocol was approved by the appropriate institutional review committee (IRB), with the name of the committee and institution being clearly stated; and (c) the study conformed to the ethical guidelines of the 1975 Declaration of Helsinki. No information that could identify a patient can be shown without express written permission from the patient.

Clinical trial registry

For clinical trials, the Clinical Trials Registry identifier number and platform (such as the, managed and operated by the United States National Library of Medicine at the National Institutes of Health) should be provided.

Animal subjects

Ethical conduct is expected for all procedures related to animal handling, including husbandry, care, and experimentation. For animal studies, it will be clearly stated that approval was obtained from an institutional animal care committee and that all animals received humane care in accordance with the "Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals" prepared by the National Academy of Sciences and published by the National Institutes of Health (NIH publication 86-23 revised 1985).

Proper credit for all individuals or organizations that conduct or fund the experimental procedures

Authors are expected to give proper credit to all individuals and organizations involved in the performance of the research described in an article published by Xia & He Publishing. The Authorship Criteria can be found here. Individuals who do not meet the Authorship Criteria but who aided in the research, such as patients and hospital staff, should be appropriately acknowledged in the Acknowledgments section of the manuscript. Organizations that were contracted to perform work related to the research or that acted in a non-paid collaborative manner should be appropriately acknowledged in the manuscript. All funding agencies that provided support for the research or for any of the individuals involved in the research must be appropriately acknowledged in the manuscript.

III. Ethics in Publication

Xia & He journals have a zero-tolerance policy for plagiarism. Suspected cases of plagiarism will be investigated and dealt with on a case-by-case basis, with the editors-in-chief responsible for the final decision in all cases. Please click here for detailed information.

IV. Copyright

All Xia & He journals are open access and all articles are distributed under the terms of CC BY-NC 4.0 license ( This permits all non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Starting from January 1st 2017, the copyright on all published articles will be retained with authors unless stated otherwise